Functional Characterization of the Morpheus Gene Family
Michael D. Hebert,
H. Bahar Sahin,
Matthew E. Johnson,
James C. Mullikin,
NISC Comparative Sequencing Program,
E. E. Eichler
Posted 12 Mar 2017
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/116087
Posted 12 Mar 2017
The burst of segmental duplications during human and great ape evolution focuses on a set of core duplicons encoding great-ape-specific gene families. Characterization of these gene families is complicated by their high copy number, incomplete sequence, and polymorphic nature. We investigate the structure, transcriptional diversity, and protein localization of the nuclear pore complex-interacting protein (NPIP) or Morpheus gene family. The corresponding core, LCRA, encodes one of the most rapidly evolving genes in the human genome; LCRA has expanded to ~20 copies from a single ancestral locus in Old World monkey and is associated with most of the recurrent chromosome 16 microdeletions implicated in autism and mental retardation. Phylogenetic analysis and cDNA sequencing suggest two distinct subfamilies or subtypes, NPIPA and NPIPB. The latter expanded recently within the great apes due to a series of structural changes within the canonical gene structure. Among Old World monkey, we observe a testis-specific pattern of expression that contrasts with the ubiquitous pattern observed among human tissues. This change in the expression profile coincides with the structural events that reshaped the structure and organization of the gene family. Most of the expressed human copies are capable of producing an open reading frame. Immunofluorescence analyses of the morpheus genes showed a primary localization to both the nucleus and its periphery. We show that morpheus genes may be upregulated upon pI:C treatment and find evidence of human autoantibodies produced against the NPIPB protein, raising the possibility that morpheus genes may be related to immune- or autoimmune-related function.
- Downloaded 726 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 20,137 out of 94,912
- In evolutionary biology: 1,244 out of 5,736
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 50,013 out of 94,912
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 79,647 out of 94,912
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!