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Genetic variation is the fuel of evolution. However, analyzing evolutionary dynamics in natural populations is challenging, sequencing of entire populations remains costly and comprehensive sampling logistically difficult. To tackle this issue and to define relevant spatial and temporal scales of variation, we have founded the European Drosophila Population Genomics Consortium (DrosEU). Here we present the first analysis of 48 D. melanogaster population samples collected across Europe in 2014. Our analysis uncovers novel patterns of variation at multiple levels: genome-wide neutral SNPs, mtDNA haplotypes, inversions, and TEs showing previously cryptic longitudinal population structure; signatures of selective sweeps shared among populations; presumably adaptive clines in inversions; and geographic variation in TEs. Additionally, we document highly variable microbiota and identify several new Drosophila viruses. Our study reveals novel aspects of the population biology of D. melanogaster and illustrates the power of extensive sampling and pooled sequencing of populations on a continent-wide scale.

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