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Mouse embryonic stem cells are derived from in vitro explantation of blastocyst epiblasts and contribute to both the somatic lineage and germline when returned to the blastocyst but are normally excluded from the trophoblast lineage and primitive endoderm. Here, we report that cultures of expanded potential stem cells (EPSCs) can be established from individual blastomeres, by direct conversion of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and by genetically reprogramming somatic cells. Remarkably, a single EPSC contributes to the embryo proper and placenta trophoblasts in chimeras. Critically, culturing EPSCs in a trophoblast stem cell (TSC) culture condition permits direct establishment of TSC lines without genetic modification. Molecular analyses including single cell RNA-seq reveal that EPSCs share cardinal pluripotency features with ESCs but have an enriched blastomere transcriptomic signature and a dynamic DNA methylome. These proof-of-concept results open up the possibility of establishing cultures of similar stem cells in other mammalian species.

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