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Disruption of the interfacial membrane leads to Magnaporthe oryzae effector re-location and lifestyle switch during rice blast disease

By Kiersun Jones, Jie Zhu, Cory B. Jenkinson, Dong Won Kim, Chang Hyun Khang

Posted 16 Aug 2017
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/177147

The hemibiotrophic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae produces invasive hyphae enclosed in a plant-derived interfacial membrane, known as the extra-invasive hyphal membrane (EIHM), in living rice cells. Little is known about when the EIHM is disrupted and how the disruption contributes to blast disease. Here we show that EIHM disruption correlates with the hyphal growth stage in first-invaded susceptible rice cells. Our approach utilized GFP secreted from invasive hyphae as an EIHM integrity reporter. Secreted-GFP accumulated in the EIHM compartment but appeared in the rice cytoplasm when the EIHM integrity was compromised. Live-cell imaging of secreted-GFP and various fluorescent reporters revealed that EIHM disruption led to rice vacuole rupture and cell death limited to the invaded cell with closed plasmodesmata. We report that EIHM disruption and host cell death are landmarks delineating three distinct infection phases (early biotrophic, late biotrophic, and transient necrotrophic phases) within the first-invaded cell before reestablishment of biotrophy in second-invaded cells. M. oryzae effectors exhibited phase-specific localizations, including entry of the apoplastic effector Bas4 into the rice cytoplasm during the late biotrophic phase. Understanding how the phase-specific dynamics are regulated and linked to host susceptibility will offer potential targets that can be exploited to control blast disease.

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