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Real-world Effectiveness of Sotrovimab for the Early Treatment of COVID-19 During SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron Waves in the United States

By Mindy M Cheng, Carolina Reyes, Sacha Satram, Helen Birch, Daniel C. Gibbons, Myriam Drysdale, Christopher F. Bell, Anvar Suyundikov, Xiao Ding, M. Cyrus Maher, Wendy Yeh, Amalio Telenti, Lawrence Corey

Posted 11 Sep 2022
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2022.09.07.22279497

Background Sotrovimab, a recombinant human monoclonal antibody (mAb) against SARS-CoV-2 had US FDA Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the treatment of high-risk outpatients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 from May 26, 2021, to April 5, 2022. The study objective was to evaluate the real-world effectiveness of sotrovimab in reducing the risk of 30-day all-cause hospitalization and/or mortality during the time period when the prevalence of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants was changing between Delta and Omicron sub-lineages in the US. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on de-identified claims data for 1,530,501 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 (ICD-10: U07.1) from September 1, 2021, to April 30, 2022, in the FAIR Health National Private Insurance Claims (FH NPIC(R)) database. Patients meeting EUA high-risk criteria were identified via pre-specified ICD-10-CM diagnoses in records [&le;]24 months prior to their first COVID-19 diagnosis and divided into two cohorts based on claimed procedural codes: treated with sotrovimab (''sotrovimab'') and not treated with a mAb (''no mAb''). All-cause hospitalizations and facility-reported all-cause mortality within 30 days of diagnosis (''30-day hospitalization or mortality'') were identified. Multivariable and propensity score-matched Poisson and logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the adjusted relative risk (RR) and odds of 30-day hospitalization or mortality among those treated with sotrovimab compared with those not treated with a mAb. Results Of the high-risk COVID-19 patients identified, 15,633 were treated with sotrovimab and 1,514,868 were not treated with a mAb. Compared with the no mAb cohort, the sotrovimab cohort was older and had a higher proportion of patients across the majority of high-risk conditions. In the no mAb cohort, 84,307 (5.57%) patients were hospitalized and 8,167 (0.54%) deaths were identified, while in the sotrovimab cohort, 418 (2.67%) patients were hospitalized and 13 (0.08%) deaths were identified. After adjusting for potential confounders, high-risk COVID-19 patients treated with sotrovimab had a 55% relative risk reduction of 30-day hospitalization or mortality (RR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.41,0.49) and an 85% relative risk reduction of 30-day mortality (RR: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.29) compared with high-risk patients not treated with a mAb. From September 2021 to April 2022, sotrovimab maintained clinical effectiveness with relative risk reductions of 30-day hospitalization or mortality ranging from 46% to 71%. Stratifying by high-risk condition, sotrovimab-treated patients exhibited statistically significant relative risk reductions of 30-day hospitalization or mortality compared with the no mAb cohort across all high-risk conditions (P<0.0001), ranging from 44% among pregnant women to 70% among patients 65 years and older. Conclusion In this large, US real-world, observational study of high-risk COVID-19 patients with reported diagnosis between September 2021 and April 2022 during the Delta and early Omicron variant waves, treatment with sotrovimab was associated with reduced risk of 30-day all-cause hospitalization and facility-reported mortality compared with no mAb treatment. Sotrovimab clinical effectiveness persisted throughout the months when Delta and early Omicron sub-lineages were the predominant circulating variants in the US, though there was an uncertain RR estimate in April 2022 with wide confidence intervals due to the small sample size. Sotrovimab clinical effectiveness also persisted among all high-risk subgroups assessed.

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