Chondroitin Sulfate Flourishes Gut Sulfatase-Secreting Bacteria To Damage Mucus Layers, Leak Bacterial Debris, And Trigger Inflammatory Lesions In Mice
Background: An interaction of the food types with the gut microbiota changes is deeply implicated in human health and disease. To verify whether animal-based diets would lead to gut dysbiosis, systemic inflammation and inflammatory pathogenesis, we fed mice with chondroitin sulfate (CS), a sulfate-containing O-glycan naturally occurring in livestock and poultry products, and monitored the dynamic changes of microbial flores, inflammatory signatures, and pathogenic hallmarks. Results: A metagenomic gut microbiota analysis revealed the overgrowth of sulfatase-secreting bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the gastrointestinal tracts of mice upon daily CS feeding. Sulfatase-secreting bacteria compromise gut integrity through prompting mucin degradation and mucus lesions, which were evident from the upregulation of secretary leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and mucin 1/4 (MUC-1/4). A synchronous elevation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) levels in the serum as well as cerebral, hepatic, cardiac and muscular tissues suggests bacterial endotoxinemia, chronic low-grade inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction, eventually leading to the onset of global inflammatory pathogenesis towards arthritis, dementia, tumor, and fatty liver. Conclusions: CS triggers the early-phase and multi-systemic pathogenesis like arthritis, dementia, tumor, and fatty liver by enhancing gut opportunistic infection and evoking low-grade inflammation in mice. A plausible reason for the inconsistency of CS in treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) was also discussed.
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