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To examine the functional contribution of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) microbes to immune homeostasis and colitis, we colonized unchallenged and colitis-susceptible germ-free mice with over twenty human intestinal microbiotas from healthy and IBD donors. Compared to healthy microbiotas, IBD microbiotas led to expanded RORgammat+Th17 cells and reduced RORgammat+Treg in the gut of unchallenged gnotobiotic mice and increased disease severity in colitis-susceptible mice. The proportions of RORgammat+Th17 and RORgammat+Treg induced by each microbiota were highly predictive of the human disease status and strongly correlated with disease severity in colitis-susceptible mice colonized with the same human microbiotas. The transmittable functional potential of IBD microbes suggests a mechanism for a microbial contribution to IBD pathogenesis and a potential route for its treatment and prevention.

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