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The landscape and diagnostic potential of T and B cell repertoire in Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy

By Chen Huang, Xuemei Li, Jinghua Wu, Wei Zhang, Shiren Sun, Liya Lin, Xie Wang, Hongmei Li, Xiaolei Wu, Peng Zhang, Guoshuang Xu, Hanmin Wan, Hongbao Liu, Yuzhen Liu, Dapeng Chen, Li Zhuo, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Ling Wang, Xiao Liu

Posted 09 May 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/316216 (published DOI: 10.1016/j.jaut.2018.10.018)

Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common glomerulonephritis worldwide. In IgAN, immune complex deposite in glomerular mesangium, which induce inflammation and affect the kidney's normal functions. However, the exact pathogenesis of IgAN is still incompletely understood. Further, in current practice the clinical diagnosis relies on needle biopsy on renal tissue. Therefore, a non-invasive method for clinical diagnosis and prognosis surveillance of the disease is in high demand. In this paper, we investigated both the T cell receptor bata chain (TCRB) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) repertoire of kidney infiltrating and circulating lymphocytes of IgAN patients by immune repertoire high throughput sequencing. We found that the features of TCRB and IGH in the renal tissues were remarkably different from that in blood, including a decreased repertoire diversity and increased IgA and IgG frequency, and more activated B cells. The CDR3 length of PBMC TCRB and IGH in patients is significantly shorter than that in healthy controls, which is the result of both VDJ rearrangement and clone selection. We also found that the IgA1 frequency in the PBMC of IgAN is significant higher than that in other Nephropathy (NIgAN) and healthy control, which is consistent with the previous reports on the level of IgA1 producing B cells and serum IgA1. Significantly, we identified a set of IgAN disease related TCRB and IGH CDR3s, which can be used to distinguish IgAN from NIgAN and healthy controls from the blood with high accuracy. These results indicated that TCRB and IGH repertoire can potentially serve as non-invasive biomarkers for IgAN diagnosis. The characteristics of kidney infiltrating and circulating lymphocytes repertoire shed light on IgAN detection, treatment and surveillance.

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