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Background: The impact of COVID-19 on all-cause mortality in sub-Saharan Africa remains unknown. Methods: We monitored mortality among 306,000 residents of Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Kenya, through four COVID-19 waves from April 2020-September 2021. We calculated expected deaths using negative binomial regression fitted to baseline mortality data (2010-2019) and calculated excess mortality as observed-minus-expected deaths. We excluded deaths in infancy because of under-ascertainment of births during lockdown. In February 2021, after two waves of wild-type COVID-19, adult seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 was 25.1%. We predicted COVID-19-attributable deaths as the product of age-specific seroprevalence, population size and global infection fatality ratios (IFR). We examined changes in cause of death by Verbal Autopsy (VA). Results: Between April 2020 and February 2021, we observed 1,000 deaths against 1,012 expected deaths (excess mortality -1.2%, 95% PI -6.6%, 5.8%). Based on SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence, we predicted 306 COVID-19-attributable deaths (a predicted excess mortality of 30.6%) within this period. Monthly mortality analyses showed a significant excess among adults aged [≥]45 years in only two months, July-August 2021, coinciding with the fourth (Delta) wave of COVID-19. By September 2021, overall excess mortality was 3.2% (95% PI -0.6%, 8.1%) and cumulative excess mortality risk was 18.7/100,000. By VA, there was a transient reduction in deaths attributable to acute respiratory infections in 2020. Conclusions: Normal mortality rates during extensive transmission of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 through February 2021 suggests that the IFR for this variant is lower in Kenya than elsewhere. We found excess mortality associated with the Delta variant but the cumulative excess mortality risk remains low in coastal Kenya compared to global estimates.

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