We report consistent increases in phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) expression in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (3xTg-AD) and related tauopathy (PS19), particularly in hippocampal astrocytes. Human single-cell RNA- sequencing data reveal a sequential increase of PHGDH expression in people with no, early, and late AD pathology, which is corroborated by protein mass spectrometry and immunohistochemical analyses of three independent cohorts. A sequential increase of PHGDH expression also correlates with increasing clinical AD symptoms and worsening cognitive decline in patients. The consistent increase of PHGDH expression in six AD cohorts (Mayo, ROSMAP, Mount Sinai, Baltimore, Amsterdam, and UCSD/UCI) corroborates with the recent report of PHGDH extracellular RNA in blood plasma as a candidate biomarker for early diagnosis of AD and offers a caution to the suggested use of L-serine as a potential therapy of AD.
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