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Comparative Proteogenomic Analysis of Right-sided Colon Cancer, Left-sided Colon Cancer and Rectal Cancers Reveal Distinct Mutational Profiles.

By Robin Imperial, Zaheer Ahmed, Omer M Toor, Cihat Erdo─čan, Ateeq Khaliq, Paul Case, James Case, Kevin Kennedy, Lee S Cummings, Niklas Melton, Shahzad Raza, Banu Diri, Ramzi Mohammad, Bassel El-Rayes, Timothy Pluard, Arif Hussain, Janakiraman Subramanian, Ashiq Masood

Posted 30 Jun 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/359679 (published DOI: 10.1186/s12943-018-0923-9)

To understand the molecular differences between right-sided colon cancer (RCC), left-sided colon cancer (LCC) and rectal cancer, we analyzed colorectal tumors at the DNA, RNA, miRNA and protein levels using previously sequenced data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Clonal evolution analysis identified the same tumor-initiating events involving APC, KRAS and TP53 genes in RCC, LCC and rectal cancers. However, the individual role-played by each event, their order in tumor dynamics and selection of downstream mutations were distinct in all three anatomical locations, with some similarities noted between LCC and rectal cancer. We found a potentially targetable alteration APC R1450* specific to RCC that has not been previously described. Differential gene expression analysis revealed that multiple genes within the homeobox, G-protein coupled receptor binding and transcription regulation families were dysregulated in RCC, LCC, and rectal cancers and may have a pathological role in these cancers. Further, using a novel in silico proteomic analytic tool developed by our research group, we found distinct central or hub proteins with unique interactomes in each location. Protein expression signatures were not necessarily concordant with the tumor profiles obtained at the DNA and RNA levels, underscoring the relevance of post-transcriptional events in defining the biology of these cancers beyond molecular changes at the DNA and/or RNA level. Ultimately, not only tumor location and the respective genomic profile but also protein-protein interactions will need to be taken into account to improve treatment outcomes of colorectal cancers. Further studies that take into account the alterations found in this study may help in developing more tailored, and perhaps more effective, treatment strategies.

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