Genetic, inflammatory, and epithelial cell differentiation factors control expression of human calpain-14
Daniel E. Miller,
Michael P. Trimarchi,
Stephen N. Waggoner,
Matthew T Weirauch,
Marc E Rothenberg,
Leah C. Kottyan
Posted 03 Jul 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/359638 (published DOI: 10.1534/g3.118.200901)
Posted 03 Jul 2018
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, food-driven allergic disease resulting in eosinophilic esophageal inflammation. We recently found that EoE susceptibility is associated with genetic variants in the promoter of CAPN14, a gene with esophagus-specific expression. CAPN14 is dynamically up-regulated as a function of EoE disease activity and after exposure of epithelial cells to interleukin-13 (IL-13). Herein, we aimed to explore molecular modulation of CAPN14 expression. We identified three putative binding sites for the IL-13-activated transcription factor STAT6 in the promoter and first intron of CAPN14. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that the two most distal STAT6 elements were required for the ~10-fold increase in promoter activity subsequent to stimulation with IL-13 or IL-4, and also for the genotype-dependent reduction in IL-13-induced promoter activity. One of the STAT6 elements in the promoter was necessary for IL-13-mediated induction of CAPN14 promoter activity while the other STAT6 promoter element was necessary for full induction. Chromatin immunoprecipitation in IL-13 stimulated esophageal epithelial cells was used to further support STAT6 binding to the promoter of CAPN14 at these STAT6 binding sites. The highest CAPN14 and calpain-14 expression occurred with IL-13 or IL-4 stimulation of esophageal epithelial cells under culture conditions that allow the cells to differentiate into a stratified epithelium. This work establishes a candidate molecular mechanism for EoE disease etiology in which the risk variant at 2p23 dampens mediated CAPN14 expression in differentiated esophageal epithelial cells following IL-13/STAT6 induction of CAPN14 promoter activity.
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