Discovery of biomarkers for glycaemic deterioration before and after the onset of type 2 diabetes: an overview of the data from the epidemiological studies within the IMI DIRECT Consortium
Robert W Koivula,
Ian M Forgie,
Giuseppe N Giordano,
Tue H. Hansen,
Kristine H Allin,
Caroline A Brorsson,
Adem Y Dawed,
Federico De Masi,
Christopher J Groves,
Mandy H Perry,
Simone P Rauh,
Harriet J. A. Teare,
Timothy J McDonald,
Jochen M Schwenk,
Mark I McCarthy,
Paul W Franks,
for the IMIDIRECT Consortium
Posted 16 Apr 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/300244 (published DOI: 10.1007/s00125-019-4906-1)
Posted 16 Apr 2018
Background and aims: Understanding the aetiology, clinical presentation and prognosis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and optimizing its treatment might be facilitated by biomarkers that help predict a person's susceptibility to the risk factors that cause diabetes or its complications, or response to treatment. The IMI DIRECT (Diabetes Research on Patient Stratification) Study is a European Union (EU) Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) project that seeks to test these hypotheses in two recently established epidemiological cohorts. Here, we describe the characteristics of these cohorts at baseline and at the first main follow-up examination (18-months). Materials and methods: From a sampling-frame of 24,682 European-ancestry adults in whom detailed health information was available, participants at varying risk of glycaemic deterioration were identified using a risk prediction algorithm and enrolled into a prospective cohort study (n=2127) undertaken at four study centres across Europe (Cohort 1: prediabetes). We also recruited people from clinical registries with recently diagnosed T2D (n=789) into a second cohort study (Cohort 2: diabetes). The two cohorts were studied in parallel with matched protocols. Endogenous insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were modelled from frequently sampled 75g oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) in Cohort 1 and with mixed-meal tolerance tests (MMTT) in Cohort 2. Additional metabolic biochemistry was determined using blood samples taken when fasted and during the tolerance tests. Body composition was assessed using MRI and lifestyle measures through self-report and objective methods. Results: Using ADA-2011 glycaemic categories, 33% (n=693) of Cohort 1 (prediabetes) had normal glucose regulation (NGR), and 67% (n=1419) had impaired glucose regulation (IGR). 76% of the cohort was male, age=62(6.2) years; BMI=28.4(4.0) kg/m2; fasting glucose=5.7(0.6)mmol/l; 2-hr glucose=5.9(1.6) mmol/l [mean(SD)]. At follow-up, 18.5(1.4) months after baseline, fasting glucose=5.8(0.6)mmol/l; 2-hr OGTT glucose=6.1(1.7) mmol/l [mean(SD)]. In Cohort 2 (diabetes): 65% (n=508) were lifestyle treated (LS) and 35% (n=271) were lifestyle + metformin treated (LS+MET). 58% of the cohort was male, age=62(8.1) years; BMI=31(5.0)kg/m2; fasting glucose=7.2(1.4)mmol/l; 2-hr glucose=8.6(2.8)mmol/l [mean(SD)]. At follow-up, 18.2(0.6) months after baseline, fasting glucose=7.8(1.8)mmol/l; 2-hr MMTT glucose=9.5(3.3) mmol/l [mean(SD)]. Conclusion: The epidemiological IMI DIRECT cohorts are the most intensely characterised prospective studies of glycaemic deterioration to date. Data from these cohorts help illustrate the heterogeneous characteristics of people at risk of or with T2D, highlighting the rationale for biomarker stratification of the disease - the primary objective of the DIRECT consortium.
- Downloaded 339 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 77,910
- In epidemiology: 3,249
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 99,971
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 93,032
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!