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Background: 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10), delivered at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age, was introduced in Kenya in January 2011, accompanied by a catch-up campaign in Kilifi County for children <5 years. Coverage with ≥2 PCV10 doses in children 2-11 months was 80% in 2011 and 84% in 2016; coverage with ≥1 dose in children 12-59 months was 66% and 87%, respectively. Methods: Clinical and microbiological surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among admissions of all ages at Kilifi County Hospital was linked to the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System from 1999-2016. We calculated the incidence rate ratio (IRR) comparing the pre-vaccine and post-vaccine eras, adjusted for confounding, and reported percent reduction in IPD as 1-IRR. Annual cross-sectional surveys of nasopharyngeal carriage were conducted from 2009-2016. Findings: Surveillance identified 667 IPD cases in 3,211,403 person-years of observation. IPD incidence in children <5 years fell sharply in 2011 following PCV10 introduction, and remained low (PCV10-type IPD: 60.8 vs 3.2/100,000 [92% reduction; 95% CI: 78, 97]; overall IPD: 81.6 vs 15.3/100,000 [68% reduction; 95% CI: 40, 83]; 1999-2010 vs 2012-2016). PCV10-type IPD also declined significantly in unvaccinated age groups (<2 months, 5-14 years, ≥15 years), with estimated reductions of 100%, 74%, and 81%, respectively. There was no significant change in the incidence of non-PCV10 type IPD. In children aged <5 years, PCV10-type carriage declined by 74% and non-PCV10-type carriage increased by 71%. Interpretation: Introduction of PCV10 in Kenya resulted in a substantial reduction in PCV10-type IPD in children and adults without significant replacement disease. These findings suggest that routine infant PCV10 immunization programmes with catch-up campaigns will provide substantial direct and indirect protection in low-income settings in tropical Africa. Funding: Gavi, The Vaccine Alliance; The Wellcome Trust of Great Britain

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