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Increased risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 Beta, Gamma, and Delta variant compared to Alpha variant in vaccinated individuals

By Stijn P. Andeweg, Harry Vennema, Irene Veldhuijzen, Naomi Smorenburg, Dennis Schmitz, Florian Zwagemaker, SeqNeth Molecular surveillance group, RIVM COVID-19 Molecular epidemiology group, Arianne B. van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Susan JM Hahne, Chantal Reusken, Mirjam J. Knol, Dirk Eggink

Posted 24 Nov 2021
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.11.24.21266735

The extent to which severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOC) break through infection- or vaccine-induced immunity is not well understood. Here, we analyze 28,578 sequenced SARS-CoV-2 samples from individuals with known immune status obtained through national community testing in the Netherlands from March to August 2021. We find evidence for an increased risk of infection by the Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), or Delta (B.1.617.2) variants compared to the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant after vaccination. No clear differences were found between vaccines. However, the effect was larger in the first 14-59 days after complete vaccination compared to 60 days and longer. In contrast to vaccine-induced immunity, no increased risk for reinfection with Beta, Gamma or Delta variants relative to Alpha variant was found in individuals with infection-induced immunity.

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