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Assessment of temporal complexity in functional MRI between rest and task conditions

By Amir Omidvarnia, Raphael Liegeois, Enrico Amico, Giulia Preti, Andrew Zalesky, Dimitri Van De Ville

Posted 20 Nov 2021
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.11.20.469367

Dynamic models of cortical activity, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have recently brought out important insights into the organization of brain function. In terms of temporal complexity, these hemodynamic signals have been shown to exhibit critical behaviour at the edge between order and disorder. In this study, we aimed to revisit the properties and spatial distribution of temporal complexity in resting state and task fMRI of 100 unrelated subjects from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). First, we compared two common choices of complexity measures (i.e., Hurst exponent versus multiscale entropy) and reported high similarity between them. Second, we investigated the influence of experimental paradigms and found high task-specific complexity. We considered four mental tasks in the HCP database for the analysis: Emotion, Working memory, Social, and Language. Third, we tailored a recently-proposed statistical framework that incorporates the structural connectome, to assess the spatial distribution of complexity measures. These results highlight brain regions including parts of the default mode network and cingulate cortex with significantly stronger complex behaviour than the rest of the brain, irrespective of task. In sum, temporal complexity measures of fMRI are reliable markers of the cognitive status.

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