nucGEMs probe the biophysical properties of the nucleoplasm
Gururaj Rao Kidiyoor,
Nora L Herzog,
Gregory P Brittingham,
Posted 20 Nov 2021
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.11.18.469159
Posted 20 Nov 2021
The cell interior is highly crowded and far from thermodynamic equilibrium. This environment can dramatically impact molecular motion and assembly, and therefore influence sub-cellular organization and biochemical reaction rates. These effects depend strongly on length-scale, with the least information available at the important mesoscale (10-100 nanometers), which corresponds to the size of crucial regulatory molecules such as RNA polymerase II. It has been challenging to study the mesoscale physical properties of the nucleoplasm because previous methods were labor-intensive and perturbative. Here, we report nuclear Genetically Encoded Multimeric nanoparticles (nucGEMs). Introduction of a single gene leads to continuous production and assembly of protein-based bright fluorescent nanoparticles of 40 nm diameter. We implemented nucGEMs in budding and fission yeasts and in mammalian cell lines. We found that the nucleus is more crowded than the cytosol at the mesoscale, that mitotic chromosome condensation ejects nucGEMs from the nucleus, and that nucGEMs are excluded from heterochromatin and the nucleolus. nucGEMs enable hundreds of nuclear rheology experiments per hour, and allow evolutionary comparison of the physical properties of the cytosol and nucleoplasm.
- Downloaded 699 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 49,885
- In biophysics: 1,635
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 10,311
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 3,071
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!