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Cost-effectiveness analysis of BNT162b2 COVID-19 booster vaccination in the United States

By Rui Li, Hanting Liu, Christopher Kit Fairley, Zhuoru Zou, Li Xie, Xinghui Li, Mingwang Shen, Yan Li, Lei Zhang

Posted 14 Nov 2021
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.11.14.21266318

Background: Over 86% of older adults aged [≥]65 years are fully vaccinated against SARS-COV-2 in the United States (US). Waning protection of the existing vaccines promotes the new vaccination strategies, such as providing a booster shot for those fully vaccinated. Methods: We developed a decision-analytic Markov model of COVID-19 to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a booster strategy of Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 (administered 6 months after 2nd dose) in those aged [≥]65 years, from a healthcare system perspective. Findings: Compared with 2-doses of BNT162b2 without a booster, the booster strategy in a 100,000 cohort of older adults would incur an additional cost of $3.4 million, but save $6.7 million in direct medical costs in 180 days. This corresponds to a benefit-cost ratio of 1.95 and a net monetary benefit of $3.4 million. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicates that with a COVID-19 incidence of 9.1/100,000 person-day, a booster strategy has a high chance (67%) of being cost-effective. The cost-effectiveness of the booster strategy is highly sensitive to the population incidence of COVID-19, with a cost-effectiveness threshold of 8.1/100,000 person-day. This threshold will increase with a decrease in vaccine and booster efficacies. Doubling the vaccination cost or halving the medical cost for COVID-19 treatment alone would not alter the conclusion of cost-effectiveness, but certain combinations of the two might render the booster strategy not cost-effective. Interpretation: Offering BNT162b2 boosters to older adults aged [≥]65 years in the US is likely to be cost-effective. Less efficacious vaccines and boosters may still be cost-effective in settings of high SARS-COV-2 transmission. Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China. Berlina and Bill Gates Foundation

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