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De Novo assembly of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) genome and the evolution of genes after whole genome duplication

By Zelin Chen, Yoshihiro Omori, Sergey Koren, Takuya Shirokiya, Takuo Kuroda, Atsushi Miyamoto, Hironori Wada, Asao Fujiyama, Atsushi Toyoda, Suiyuan Zhang, Tyra G Wolfsberg, Koichi Kawakami, Adam M. Phillippy, NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, James C. Mullikin, Shawn Burgess

Posted 20 Jul 2018
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/373431 (published DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav0547)

For over a thousand years throughout Asia, the common goldfish (Carassius auratus) was raised for both food and as an ornamental pet. Selective breeding over more than 500 years has created a wide array of body and pigmentation variation particularly valued by ornamental fish enthusiasts. As a very close relative of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), goldfish shares the recent genome duplication that occurred approximately 14-16 million years ago (mya) in their common ancestor. The combination of centuries of breeding and a wide array of interesting body morphologies is an exciting opportunity to link genotype to phenotype as well as understanding the dynamics of genome evolution and speciation. Here we generated a high-quality draft sequence of a "Wakin" goldfish using 71X PacBio long-reads. We identified 70,324 coding genes and more than 11,000 non-coding transcripts. We found that the two sub-genomes in goldfish retained extensive synteny and collinearity between goldfish and zebrafish. However, "ohnologous" genes were lost quickly after the carp whole-genome duplication, and the expression of 30% of the retained duplicated gene diverged significantly across seven tissues sampled. Loss of sequence identity and/or exons determined the divergence of the expression across all tissues, while loss of conserved, non-coding elements determined expression variance between different tissues. This draft assembly also provides an important resource for comparative genomics with the very commonly used zebrafish model (Danio rerio), and for understanding the underlying genetic causes of goldfish variants.

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