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Drugs that kill tumors through multiple mechanisms have potential for broad clinical benefits, with a reduced propensity to resistance. We developed BipotentR, a computational approach to find cancer-cell-specific regulators that simultaneously modulate tumor immunity and another oncogenic pathway. Using tumor metabolism as proof-of-principle, BipotentR identified 38 candidate immune-metabolic regulators by combining epigenomes with bulk and single-cell tumor transcriptomes from patients. Inhibition of top candidate ESRRA (Estrogen Related Receptor Alpha) killed tumors by direct effects on energy metabolism and two immune mechanisms: (i) cytokine induction, causing proinflammatory macrophage polarization (ii) antigen-presentation stimulation, recruiting CD8+T cells into tumors. ESRRA is activated in immune-suppressive and immunotherapy-resistant tumors of many types, suggesting broad clinical relevance. We also applied BipotentR to angiogenesis and growth-suppressor pathways, demonstrating a widely applicable approach to identify drug targets that act simultaneously through multiple mechanisms. BipotentR is publicly available at http://bipotentr.dfci.harvard.edu/.

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