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Solid tumors are complex ecosystems, and heterogeneity is the major challenge for overcoming tumor relapse and metastasis. Uncovering the spatial heterogeneity of cell types and functional states in tumors is essential for developing effective treatment, especially in invasive fronts of tumor, the most active region for tumor cells infiltration and invasion. We firstly used SpaTial Enhanced REsolution Omics-sequencing (Stereo-seq) with a nanoscale resolution to characterize the tumor microenvironment of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Enrichment of distinctive immune cells, suppressive immune microenvironment and metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells were identified in the 500m-wide zone centered bilaterally on the tumor boundary, namely invasive fronts of tumor. Furthermore, we found the damaged states of hepatocytes with overexpression of Serum Amyloid A (SAA) in invasive fronts, recruiting macrophages for facilitating further tumor invasion, and thus resulting in a worse prognosis. We also confirmed these findings in hepatocellular carcinoma and other liver metastatic cancers. Our work highlights the remarkable potential of high-resolution-spatially resolved transcriptomic approaches to provide meaningful biological insights for comprehensively dissecting the tumor ecosystem and guiding the development of novel therapeutic strategies for solid tumors.

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