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Evaluation of determinants of the serological response to the split-inactivated influenza vaccine

By Shaohuan Wu, Ted Ross, Michael A Carlock, Elodie Ghedin, Hyungwon Choi, Christine Vogel

Posted 11 Oct 2021
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.10.07.21264416

The seasonal influenza vaccine is only effective in half of the vaccinated population. To identify determinants of vaccine efficacy, we used data from >1,300 vaccination events to predict the response to vaccination measured as seroconversion as well as hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) levels one year after. We evaluated the predictive capabilities of age, body mass index (BMI), sex, race, comorbidities, prevaccination history, and baseline HAI titers, as well as vaccination month and vaccine dose in multiple linear regression models. The models predicted the categorical response for >75% of the cases in all subsets with one exception. Prior vaccination, baseline titer level, and age were the strongest determinants on seroconversion, all of which had negative effects. Further, we identified a gender effect in older participants, and an effect of vaccination month. BMI played a surprisingly small role, likely due to its correlation with age. Comorbidities, vaccine dose, and race had negligible effects. Our models can generate a new seroconversion score that is corrected for the impact of these factors which can facilitate future biomarker identification.

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