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Robust severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in nasal turbinate (NT) accounts for high viral transmissibility, yet whether neutralizing IgA antibodies can control it remains unknown. Here, we evaluated receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific monomeric B8-mIgA1 and B8-mIgA2, and dimeric B8-dIgA1 and B8-dIgA2 against intranasal SARS-CoV-2 challenge in Syrian hamsters. These antibodies exhibited comparably potent neutralization against authentic virus by competing with human angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor for RBD binding. While reducing viruses in lungs, pre-exposure intranasal B8-dIgA1 or B8-dIgA2 led to 81-fold more infectious viruses and severer damage in NT than placebo. Virus-bound B8-dIgA1 and B8-dIgA2 could engage CD209 as an alternative receptor for entry into ACE2-negative cells and allowed viral cell-to-cell transmission. Cryo-EM revealed B8 as a class II neutralizing antibody binding trimeric RBDs in 3-up or 2-up/1-down conformation. Therefore, RBD-specific neutralizing dIgA engages an unexpected action for enhanced SARS-CoV-2 nasal infection and injury in Syrian hamsters.

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