Genetic and environmental correlations between complex phenotypes differ by race/ethnicity and sex
Matthew O Goodman,
Paul S. de Vries,
Ani W. Manichaikul,
Bruce M. Psaty,
Donald M Lloyd-Jones,
Nancy L. Heard-Costa,
Robert C. Kaplan,
Posted 10 Sep 2021
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.09.05.21263126
Posted 10 Sep 2021
We developed novel closed-form estimators of genetic and environmental correlation coefficients. We applied them to estimate over 4,000 genetic and environmental correlations between multiple phenotypes in a diverse sample from the Trans-Omics in Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. We found substantial differences in heritabilities, genetic, and environmental correlations of multiple phenotypes and phenotype-pairs between Black, Hispanic/Latino and White populations as well as between sexes. Finally, we quantified genetic and environmental correlations between phenotypic domains, each characterized by multiple phenotypes. Altogether we provide a novel, in-depth framework for examining relations among complex human phenotypes and their determinants.
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