Maternal mRNA deadenylation is defective in in vitro matured mouse and human oocytes
Oocyte in vitro maturation is a technique of assisted reproductive technology that was first introduced in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome and is now used in most fertility clinics. Thousands of genes show abnormally high expression in in vitro maturated metaphase II (in vitro MII) oocytes compared with in vivo maturated metaphase II (in vivo MII) oocytes in bovines, mice, and humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of this abnormal expression are still poorly understood. In this study, we use PAIso-seq1 to reveal a transcriptome-wide expression profile of full-length transcripts containing entire poly(A) tails in in vivo and in vitro matured mouse and human oocytes. Our results indicate that more genes are up-regulated than down-regulated in in vitro MII oocytes in both mice and humans. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the observed increase in maternal mRNA abundance is caused by impaired deadenylation in in vitro MII oocytes in both mice and humans. We also found that the cytoplasmic polyadenylation of dormant Btg4 and Cnot7 mRNAs, which encode key components of deadenylation machinery, is impaired in in vitro MII oocytes in mice and humans respectively, likely contributing to reduced translation and impaired global maternal mRNA deadenylation. Our findings highlight that impaired maternal mRNA deadenylation is a definite molecular defect in in vitro MII oocytes in both mice and humans. The findings here offer a new criterion for evaluating the quality of in vitro MII oocytes and a potential direction for improving in vitro maturation by fixing the dysregulated maternal mRNA deadenylation.
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