The immediate evolutionary space accessible to HIV is largely determined by how single amino-acid mutations affect fitness. These mutational effects can shift as the virus evolves. However, the prevalence of such shifts in mutational effects remains unclear. Here we quantify the effects on viral growth of all amino-acid mutations to two HIV envelope (Env) proteins that differ at >100 residues. Most mutations similarly affect both Envs, but the amino-acid preferences of a minority of sites have clearly shifted. These shifted sites usually prefer a specific amino acid in one Env, but tolerate many amino acids in the other. Surprisingly, shifts are only slightly enriched at sites that have substituted between the Envs -- and many occur at residues that do not even contact substitutions. Therefore, long-range epistasis can unpredictably shift Env's mutational tolerance during HIV evolution, although the amino-acid preferences of most sites are conserved between moderately diverged viral strains.
- Downloaded 526 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 46,536
- In microbiology: 2,910
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 117,691
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 117,691
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!