Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli display a distinct growth phase before entry into stationary phase with shifts in tryptophan- fucose- and putrescine metabolism and degradation of neurotransmitter precursors
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrhea in children and adults in endemic areas. Gene regulation of ETEC during growth in vitro and in vivo needs to be further evaluated, and here we describe the full transcriptome and metabolome of ETEC during growth from mid-logarithmic growth to stationary phase in rich medium (LB medium). We identified specific genes and pathways subjected to rapid transient alterations in gene expression and metabolite production during the transition between logarithmic to stationary growth. The transient phase during late exponential growth is different from the subsequent induction of stationary phase-induced genes, including stress and survival responses as described earlier. The transient phase was characterized by the repression of genes and metabolites involved in organic substance transport. Genes involved in fucose and putrescine metabolism were upregulated, and genes involved in iron transport were repressed. Expression of toxins and colonization factors were not changed, suggesting retained virulence. Metabolomic analyses showed that the transient phase was characterized by a drop of intracellular amino acids, e.g., L-tyrosine, L-tryptophan, L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, and L-glutamic acid, followed by increased levels at induction of stationary phase. A pathway enrichment analysis of the entire transcriptome and metabolome showed activation of pathways involved in the degradation of neurotransmitters aminobutyrate (GABA) and precursors of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). This work provides a comprehensive framework for further studies on transcriptional and metabolic regulation in pathogenic E. coli.
- Downloaded 182 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 151,866
- In microbiology: 11,317
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: None
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 20,005
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!