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Understanding maturation pathways of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV-1 in non-human primates can be highly informative for HIV-1 vaccine development. We now obtained a lineage of J038 from Chinese rhesus macaques after 7-years of SHIV infection. J038 has short complementary determining loops and neutralizes 54% of global circulating HIV-1 strains. Its binding induces a unique 'up' conformation for one of the V2 loops in the trimeric envelope glycoprotein (Env) and is heavily dependent on glycan, which provides nearly half of the binding surface. The unmutated common ancestor of the J038 lineage antibodies binds monomeric gp120 and neutralizes the autologous virus. Continuous maturation enhances neutralization potency and breadth of J038 lineage antibodies via expanding antibody-Env contact areas surrounding the core region contacted by germline-encoded residues. Developmental details and recognition features of J038 lineage antibodies revealed here provide a new pathway for maturation elicitation of V2-targeting bnAbs.

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