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Polygenic risk score and statin relative risk reduction for primary prevention in a real-world population

By Akinyemi Oni-Orisan, Tanushree Haldar, Mari Angelica Cayabyab, Dilrini K Ranatunga, Thomas J. Hoffmann, Carlos Iribarren, Ronald M Krauss, Neil Risch

Posted 29 Jul 2021
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.07.28.21254571

Background Randomized-controlled trials demonstrate that high coronary heart disease (CHD) polygenic risk score modifies statin CHD relative risk reduction, but it is unknown if the association extends to statin users undergoing routine care. Objectives The primary objective was to determine how statin effectiveness is modified by CHD polygenic risk score in a real-world cohort of primary prevention participants. Methods We determined polygenic risk scores in participants of the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort. Cox regression models were used to compare the risk of the cardiovascular outcomes between statin users and matched nonusers. Results The hazard ratio (HR) for statin effectiveness on incident myocardial infarction was similar within 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score groups at 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-1.08; P=0.10), 0.65 (95% CI 0.56-0.77; P=2.1E-7), and 0.67 (95% CI 0.57-0.80; P=4.3E-6) for borderline, intermediate, and high ASCVD groups, respectively. In contrast, statin effectiveness by polygenic risk was largest in the high polygenic risk score group (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.50-0.77; P=1.4E-5), intermediate in the intermediate polygenic risk score group (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.61-0.80; P=5.7E-7), and smallest in the low polygenic risk score group (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.65-1.16; P=0.33). ASCVD risk and statin LDL-C lowering did not differ across polygenic risk score groups. Conclusions In primary prevention patients undergoing routine care, CHD polygenic risk modified statin relative risk reduction of incident myocardial infarction independent of statin LDL-C lowering. Our findings extend prior work by identifying a subset of patients with attenuated clinical benefit from statins.

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