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Metagenome-genome-wide association studies reveal human genetic impact on the oral microbiome

By Xiaomin Liu, Xin Tong, Jie Zhu, Liu Tian, Zhuye Jie, Yuanqiang Zou, Xiaoqian Lin, Hewei Liang, Wenxi Li, Yanmei Ju, Youwen Qin, Leying Zou, Haorong Lu, Xun Xu, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Yang Zong, Weibin Liu, Yong Hou, Shida Zhu, Xin Jin, Huijue Jia, Tao Zhang

Posted 07 May 2021
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.05.06.443017

The oral microbiota contains billions of microbial cells, which could contribute to diseases in a number of body sites. Challenged by eating, drinking and dental hygiene on a daily basis, the oral microbiota is regarded as highly dynamic. Here, we report significant human genomic associations with the oral metagenome from more than 1,915 individuals, for both the tongue dorsum and saliva. We identified five genetic loci associated with oral microbiota at study-wide significance (p < 3.16 * 10-11). Four of the five associations were well replicated in an independent cohort of 1,439 individuals: rs1196764 at APPL2 with Prevotella jejuni, Oribacterium uSGB 3339 and Solobacterium uSGB 315; rs3775944 at the serum uric acid transporter SLC2A9 with Oribacterium uSGB 1215, Oribacterium uSGB 489 and Lachnoanaerobaculum umeaense; rs4911713 near OR11H1 with species F0422 uSGB 392; and rs36186689 at LOC105371703 with Eggerthia. Further analyses confirmed 84% (386/455 for tongue dorsum) and 85% (391/466 for saliva) of genetic-microbiota associations including 6 genome-wide significant associations mutually validated between the two niches. Human genetics accounted for at least 10% of oral microbiome compositions between individuals. Machine learning models showed that polygenetic risk score dominated over oral microbiome in predicting predisposing risk of dental diseases such as dental calculus and gingival bleeding. These findings indicate that human genetic differences are one explanation for a stable or recurrent oral microbiome in each individual.

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