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Genomic insights into the differentiated population admixture structure and demographic history of North East Asians

By Guanglin He, Mengge Wang, Xing Zou, Renkuan Tang, Hui-Yuan Yeh, Zheng Wang, Xiaomin Yang, Ziyang Xia, Yingxiang Li, Jianxin Guo, Rui Wang, Jing Liu, Kongyang Zhu, Jing Chen, Meiqing Yang, Qu Shen, Jinwen Chen, Jing Zhao, Hao Ma, Lanhai Wei, Ling Chen, Changhui Liu, Chao J. Liu, Gang Chen, Yiping Hou, Chuan-Chao Wang

Posted 20 Jul 2021
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.07.19.452943

North China and South Siberia, mainly populated by Altaic-speaking populations, possess extensive ethnolinguistic diversity and serve as the crossroad for the initial peopling of America and western-eastern trans-continental communication. Yet, the complex scenarios of genetic origin, population structure, and admixture history of North-East Asia remain to be fully characterized, especially for Mongolic people in China with a genome-wide perspective. Thus, we genotyped genome-wide SNPs for 510 individuals from 38 Chinese Mongolic, Tungusic, and Sinitic populations to explore the sharing alleles and haplotypes within the studied groups and following merged it with 3508 modern and ancient Eurasian individuals to reconstruct the deep evolutionary and natural selection history of northern East Asians. We identified significant substructures within Altaic-speaking populations with the primary common ancestry linked to the Neolithic northern East Asians: Western Turkic people harbored more western Eurasian ancestry; Northern Mongolic people in Siberia and eastern Tungusic people in Amur River Basin (ARB) possessed dominant Neolithic Mongolian Plateau (MP) or ARB ancestry; Southern Mongolic people in China owned obvious genetic impact from Neolithic Yellow River Basin (YRB) farmers. Additionally, we found the differentiated admixture history between western and eastern Mongolians and geographically close Northeast Hans: the former received a genetic impact from western Eurasians and the latter retained the dominant YRB and ARB Neolithic ancestry. Moreover, we demonstrated that Kalmyk people from the northern Caucasus Mountain possessed a strong genetic affinity with Neolithic MP people, supporting the hypothesis of their eastern Eurasian origin and long-distance migration history. We also illuminated that historic pastoral empires in the MP contributed considerably to the gene pool of northern Mongolic people but rarely to southern ones. We finally found natural signatures in Mongolians associated with alcohol metabolism. Generally, our results not only illuminated that complex population migration and admixture of Neolithic ancestral sources from the MP or ARB played an important role in the spread of Altaic-speaking populations and Proto-Altaic language, which partly supported the Northeast Asia-origin hypothesis, but also demonstrated that the observed multi-sources of genetic diversity contributed significantly to the modern existing extensive ethnolinguistic diversity in North-East Asia.

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