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Compared to its predecessors, the Telomere-to-Telomere CHM13 genome adds nearly 200 Mbp of sequence, corrects thousands of structural errors, and unlocks the most complex regions of the human genome to clinical and functional study. Here we demonstrate how the new reference universally improves read mapping and variant calling for 3,202 and 17 globally diverse samples sequenced with short and long reads, respectively. We identify hundreds of thousands of novel variants per sample - a new frontier for evolutionary and biomedical discovery. Simultaneously, the new reference eliminates tens of thousands of spurious variants per sample, including up to a 12-fold reduction of false positives in 269 medically relevant genes. The vast improvement in variant discovery coupled with population and functional genomic resources position T2T-CHM13 to replace GRCh38 as the prevailing reference for human genetics.

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