Advances in neuroimaging and sequencing techniques provide an unprecedented opportunity to map the function of brain regions and to identify the roots of psychiatric diseases. However, the results generated by most neuroimaging studies, i.e., activated clusters/regions or functional connectivities between brain regions, frequently cannot be conveniently and systematically interpreted, rendering the biological meaning unclear. We describe a Brain Annotation Toolbox (BAT), a toolbox that helps to generate functional and genetic annotations for neuroimaging results. The toolbox can take data from brain regions identified with an atlas, or from brain regions identified as activated in tasks, or from functional connectivity links or networks of links. Then, the voxel-level functional description from the Neurosynth database and the gene expression profile from the Allen Brain Atlas are used to generate functional and genetic knowledge for such region-level data. Parametric (Fisher's exact test) or non-parametric (permutation test) statistical tests are adopted to identify significantly related functional descriptors and genes for the neuroimaging results. The validity of the approach is demonstrated by showing that the functional and genetic annotations for specific brain regions are consistent with each other; and further the region by region functional similarity network and gene co-expression networks are highly correlated for many major brain atlases. One application of BAT is to help provide functional and genetic annotations for the newly discovered regions with unknown functions, e.g., the 97 new regions identified in the Human Connectome Project. Importantly too, this toolbox can help understand differences between patients with psychiatric disorders and controls, and this is demonstrated using data for schizophrenia and autism, for which the functional and genetic annotations for the neuroimaging data differences between patients and controls are consistent with each other and help with the interpretation of the differences.
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