Excess years of life lost to COVID-19 and other causes of death by sex, neighbourhood deprivation and region in England & Wales during 2020
Mamas A. Mamas,
Roger T. Webb,
Martin K Rutter,
Chris P. Gale,
Darren M. Ashcroft,
Kathryn M. Abel,
Harriette G.C. Van Spall,
Michelle M. Graham,
Glen P Martin,
Posted 07 Jul 2021
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.07.05.21259786
Posted 07 Jul 2021
Background Deaths in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in England & Wales have been shown to be unevenly distributed socioeconomically and geographically. However, the full scale of inequalities may have been underestimated as most measures of excess mortality do not adequately account for varying age profiles of deaths between social groups. We measured years of life lost (YLL) attributable to the pandemic, directly or indirectly, comparing mortality across geographic and socioeconomic groups. Methods YLL for registered deaths in England & Wales, from 27th December 2014 until 25th December 2020, were calculated using 2019 single year sex-specific life tables for England & Wales. Panel time-series models were used to estimate expected YLL by sex, geographical region, and deprivation quintile between 7th March 2020 and 25th December 2020 by cause: direct deaths (COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases), cardiovascular disease & diabetes, cancer, and other indirect deaths - all other causes). Excess YLL during the pandemic period were calculated by subtracting observed from expected values. Additional analyses focused on excess deaths for region and deprivation strata, by age-group. Findings Between 7th March 2020 and 25th December 2020 there were an estimated 763,550 (95% CI: 696,826 to 830,273) excess YLL in England & Wales, equivalent to a 15% (95% CI: 14 to 16) increase in YLL compared to the equivalent time period in 2019. There was a strong deprivation gradient in all-cause excess YLL, with rates per 100,000 population ranging from (916; 95% CI: 820 to 1,012) for the least deprived quintile to (1,645; 95% CI: 1,472 to 1,819) for the most deprived. The differences in excess YLL between deprivation quintiles were greatest in younger age groups; for all-cause deaths, an average of 9.1 years per death (95% CI: 8.2 to 10.0) were lost in the least deprived quintile, compared to 10.8 (95% CI: 10.0 to 11.6) in the most deprived; for COVID-19 and other respiratory deaths, an average of 8.9 years per death (95% CI: 8.7 to 9.1) were lost in the least deprived quintile, compared to 11.2 (95% CI: 11.0 to 11.5) in the most deprived. There was marked variability in both all-cause and direct excess YLL by region, with the highest rates in both in the North West. Interpretation During 2020, the first calendar year of the COVID-19 pandemic, longstanding socioeconomic and geographical health inequalities in England & Wales were exacerbated, with the most deprived areas suffering the greatest losses in potential years of life lost. Funding None
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