The majority of people over the age of 65 take two or more medications. While many individual drug side effects are known, polypharmacy side effects due to novel drug combinations poses great risk. Here, we present APRILE: an explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) framework that uses graph neural networks to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying polypharmacy side effects. Given a list of side effects and the pairs of drugs causing them, APRILE identifies a set of proteins (drug targets or non-targets) and associated Gene Ontology (GO) terms as mechanistic 'explanations' of associated side effects. Using APRILE, we generate such explanations for 843,318 (learned) and 93,966 (novel) side effect-drug pair events, spanning 861 side effects (472 diseases, 485 symptoms and 9 mental disorders) and 20 disease categories. We show that our two new metrics--pharmacogenomic information utilization and protein-protein interaction information utilization--provide quantitative estimates of mechanism complexity. Explanations were significantly consistent with state of the art disease-gene associations for 232/239 (97%) side effects. Further, APRILE generated new insights into molecular mechanisms of four diverse categories of adverse drug reactions: infection, metabolic diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, and mental disorders, including paradoxical side effects. We demonstrate the viability of discovering polypharmacy side effect mechanisms by training an XAI framework on massive biomedical data. Consequently, it facilitates wider and more reliable use of AI in healthcare.
- Downloaded 251 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 120,734
- In bioinformatics: 9,789
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 34,534
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 11,854
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!