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Brain charts for the human lifespan

By Richard A.I. Bethlehem, Jakob Seidlitz, Simon R White, Jacob W Vogel, Kevin M Anderson, Chris Adamson, Sophie Adler, George S. Alexopoulos, Evdokia Anagnostou, Ariosky Areces-Gonzalez, Duncan E. Astle, Bonnie Auyeung, Muhammad Ayub, Gareth Ball, Simon Baron-Cohen, Richard Beare, Saashi A. Bedford, Vivek Benegal, Frauke Beyer, Jong Bin Bae, John Blangero, Manuel Blesa Cabez, James P. Boardman, Matthew Borzage, Jorge F. Bosch-Bayard, Niall Bourke, Vince Calhoun, Mallar Chakravarty, Christina Chen, Casey Chertavian, Gael Chetelat, Yap S. Chong, James H Cole, Aiden Corvin, Eric Courchesne, Fabrice Crivello, Vanessa L. Cropley, Jennifer Crosbie, Nicolas Crossley, Marion Delarue, Sylvane Desrivieres, Gabriel Devenyi, Maria A. Di Biase, Ray Dolan, Kirsten A. Donald, Gary Donohoe, Katharine Dunlop, Anthony D Edwards, Jed T. Elison, Cameron T. Ellis, Jeremy A. Elman, Lisa Eyler, Damien A. Fair, Paul C. Fletcher, Peter Fonagy, Carol E. Franz, Lidice Galan-Garcia, Ali Gholipour, Jay Giedd, John H. Gilmore, David C. Glahn, Ian Goodyer, P. E. Grant, Nynke A. Groenewold, Faith M. Gunning, Raquel E. Gur, Ruben C Gur, Christopher F. Hammill, Oskar Hansson, Trey Hedden, Andreas Heinz, Richard Henson, Katja Heuer, Jacqueline Hoare, Bharath Holla, Avram J. Holmes, Rosie Holt, Hao Huang, Kiho Im, Jonathan Ipser, Clifford R. Jack, Andrea P Jackowski, Tianye Jia, Keith A Johnson, David T Jones, Peter B Jones, Rene Kahn, Hasse Karlsson, Linnea Karlsson, Ryuta Kawashima, Elizabeth A. Kelley, Silke Kern, K.W. Kim, Manfred G. Kitzbichler, William S. Kremen, Francois Lalonde, Brigitte Landeau, Subin Lee, Jason Lerch, John D. Lewis, Jiao Li, Wei Liao, Deirel P. Linares, Conor Liston, Michael V. Lombardo, Jinglei Lv, Charles Lynch, Travis T Mallard, Machteld Marcelis, Ross Markello, Bernard Mazoyer, Philip McGuire, Michael J. Meaney, Andrea Mechelli, Nenad Medic, Bratislav Misic, Sarah E Morgan, David Mothersill, Joel Nigg, Marcus Q.W. Ong, Cynthia Ortinau, Rik Ossenkoppele, Minhui Ouyang, Lena Palaniyappan, Leo Paly, Pedro M. Pan, Christos Pantelis, Min Tae M. Park, Tomas Paus, Zdenka Pausova, Alexa Pichet Binette, Karen Pierce, Xing Qian, Anqi Qiu, Jiang Qiu, Armin Raznahan, Timothy Rittman, Caitlin K. Rollins, Rafael Romero-Garcia, Lisa Ronan, Monica D. Rosenberg, David H. Rowitch, Giovanni Abrahao Salum, Theodore Daniel Satterthwaite, H. L. Schaare, Russell J Schachar, Michael Scholl, Aaron P. Schultz, Gunter Schumann, David Sharp, Russell T. Shinohara, Ingmar Skoog, Christopher D. Smyser, Reisa A. Sperling, Dan J. Stein, Aleks Stolicyn, John Suckling, Gemma Sullivan, Yasuyuki Taki, Benjamin Thyreau, Roberto Toro, Kamen Tsvetanov, Nicholas B. Turk-Browne, Jetro J Tuulari, Christophe Tzourio, Etienne Vachon-Presseau, Mitchell J. Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A. Valdes-Sosa, Sofie L. Valk, Therese van Amelsvoort, Simon N. Vandekar, Lana Vasung, Petra E Vertes, Lindsay W. Victoria, Sylvia Villeneuve, Arno Villringer, Konrad Wagstyl, Yin-Shan S. Wang, Simon K Warfield, Varun Warrier, Eric Westman, Margaret L. Westwater, Heather C Whalley, A. Veronica Witte, Ning Yang, B. T.T. Yeo, H. J. Yun, Andrew Zalesky, Heather J. Zar, Anna Zettergren, Juan H. Zhou, Hisham Ziauddeen, Andre Zugman, Xi-Nian Zuo, AIBL, Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, Alzheimer's Disease Repository Without Borders Investigators, ASRB, CALM Team, Cam-CAN, CCNP, 3R-BRAIN, COBRE, ENIGMA Developmental Brain Age working group, FinnBrain, Harvard Aging Brain Study, IMAGEN, KNE96, NSPN, OASIS-3, OpenPain Project, POND, The PREVENT-AD Research Group, VETSA, Edward T. Bullmore, Aaron F. Alexander-Bloch

Posted 10 Jun 2021
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.06.08.447489

Over the past 25 years, neuroimaging has become a ubiquitous tool in basic research and clinical studies of the human brain. However, there are no reference standards against which to anchor measures of individual differences in brain morphology, in contrast to growth charts for traits such as height and weight. Here, we built an interactive online resource (www.brainchart.io) to quantify individual differences in brain structure from any current or future magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, against models of expected age-related trends. With the goal of basing these on the largest and most inclusive dataset, we aggregated MRI data spanning 115 days post-conception through 100 postnatal years, totaling 122,123 scans from 100,071 individuals in over 100 studies across 6 continents. When quantified as centile scores relative to the reference models, individual differences show high validity with non-MRI brain growth estimates and high stability across longitudinal assessment. Centile scores helped identify previously unreported brain developmental milestones and demonstrated increased genetic heritability compared to non-centiled MRI phenotypes. Crucially for the study of brain disorders, centile scores provide a standardised and interpretable measure of deviation that reveals new patterns of neuroanatomical differences across neurological and psychiatric disorders emerging during development and ageing. In sum, brain charts for the human lifespan are an essential first step towards robust, standardised quantification of individual variation and for characterizing deviation from age-related trends. Our global collaborative study provides such an anchorpoint for basic neuroimaging research and will facilitate implementation of research-based standards in clinical studies.

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