Spatial cell type mapping of the oligodendrocyte lineage in the mouse juvenile and adult CNS with in situ sequencing
Oligodendrocytes show transcriptional heterogeneity but the regional and functional implications of this heterogeneity are less clear. Here, we apply in situ sequencing (ISS) to simultaneously probe the expression of 124 marker genes of distinct oligodendrocyte populations, providing comprehensive maps of corpus callosum, cingulate, motor and somatosensory cortex in the brain, as well as gray (GM) and white matter (WM) regions in the spinal cord, at juvenile and adult stages. We systematically compare abundances of these populations and investigate the neighboring preference of distinct oligodendrocyte populations. As previously described, we observed that oligodendrocyte lineage progression is more advanced in the juvenile spinal cord compared to the brain. Additionally, myelination is ongoing in the adult corpus callosum while it is mostly completed in the cortex. Interestingly, we found a medial-to-lateral gradient of oligodendrocyte lineage progression in the juvenile cortex, which could be linked to arealization, as well as a deep-to-superficial gradient with mature oligodendrocytes preferentially accumulating in the deeper layers of the cortex. We observed differences in abundances and population dynamics over time between GM and WM regions in the brain and spinal cord, indicating regional differences within GM and WM. We also found that oligodendroglia populations' neighboring preferences are altered from the juvenile to the adult CNS. Thus, our ISS dataset reveals spatial heterogeneity of the oligodendrocyte lineage progression in the brain and spinal cord, which could be relevant to further investigate functional heterogeneity of oligodendroglia.
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