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Heterogeneity is the major challenge for cancer prevention and therapy. Here, we firstly constructed high-resolution spatial transcriptomes of primary liver cancers (PLCs) containing 84,823 spots within 21 tissues from 7 patients. The sequential comparison of spatial tumor microenvironment (TME) characteristics from non-tumor to leading-edge to tumor regions revealed that the tumor capsule potentially affects intratumor spatial cluster continuity, transcriptome diversity and immune cell infiltration. Locally, we found that the bidirectional ligand-receptor interactions at the 100 m wide cluster-cluster boundary contribute to maintaining intratumor architecture. Our study provides novel insights for diverse tumor ecosystem of PLCs and has potential benefits for cancer intervention.

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