A multi-scale in silico mouse model for insulin resistance and humanoid type 2 diabetes
Insulin resistance (IR) causes compensatory insulin production, which in humans eventually progresses to beta-cell failure and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This disease progression involves multi-scale processes, ranging from intracellular signaling to organ-organ and whole-body level regulations, on timescales from minutes to years. T2D progression is commonly studied using overfed and genetically modified rodents. However, rodents do not exhibit human T2D progression, with IR-driven beta-cell failure, and available multi-scale data is too complex to fully comprehend using traditional analysis. To help resolve these issues, we here present an in silico mouse model. This is the first mathematical model that simultaneously explains multi-scale mouse IR data on all three levels - cells, organs, body - ranging from minutes to months. The model correctly predicts new independent multi-scale validation data and provides insights into non-measured processes. Finally, we present a humanoid in silico mouse exhibiting disease progression from IR to IR-driven T2D.
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