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Scaling of cellular proteome with ploidy

By Galal Yahya, Paul Menges, Devi Anggraini Ngandiri, Daniel Schulz, Andreas Wallek, Nils A Kulak, Matthias Mann, Patrick Cramer, Van Savage, Markus Raeschle, Zuzana Storchova

Posted 07 May 2021
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.05.06.442919

Ploidy changes are frequent in nature and contribute to evolution, functional specialization and tumorigenesis (1,2). Analysis of model organisms of different ploidies revealed that increased ploidy leads to an increase in cell and nuclear volume, reduced proliferation (2-4), metabolic changes (5), lower fitness (6,7), and increased genomic instability (8,9), but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. To investigate how the gene expression changes with cellular ploidy, we analyzed isogenic series of budding yeasts from 1N to 4N. We show that mRNA and protein abundance scales allometrically with ploidy, with tetraploid cells showing only threefold increase in proteins compared to haploids. This ploidy-specific scaling occurs via decreased rRNA and ribosomal protein abundance and reduced translation. We demonstrate that the Tor1 activity is reduced with increasing ploidy, which leads to rRNA gene repression via a novel Tor1-Sch9-Tup1 signaling pathway. mTORC1 and S6K activity are also reduced in human tetraploid cells and the concomitant increase of the Tup1 homolog Tle1 downregulates the rDNA transcription. Our results revealed a novel conserved mTORC1-S6K-Tup1/Tle1 pathway that ensures proteome remodeling in response to increased ploidy.

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