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Adaptive immune determinants of viral clearance and protection in mouse models of SARS-CoV-2

By Benjamin Goldman-Israelow, Tianyang Mao, Jon Klein, Eric Song, Bridget L. Menasche, Saad B. Omer, Akiko Iwasaki

Posted 19 May 2021
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.05.19.444825

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused more than 160 million infections and more than 3 million deaths worldwide. While effective vaccines are currently being deployed, the adaptive immune determinants which promote viral clearance and confer protection remain poorly defined. Using mouse models of SARS-CoV-2, we demonstrate that both humoral and cellular adaptive immunity contributes to viral clearance in the setting of primary infection. Furthermore, we find that either convalescent mice, or mice that receive mRNA vaccination are protected from both homologous infection and infection with a variant of concern, B.1.351. Additionally, we find this protection to be largely mediated by antibody response and not cellular immunity. These results highlight the in vivo protective capacity of antibodies generated to both vaccine and natural infection.

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