Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels are concordant across multiple platforms but are not fully predictive of sterilizing immunity
Ben T. Bradley,
Susan L. Fink,
Erin A Goecker,
Joyce Y-C Lu,
Nandita S Mani,
Keith R Jerome,
Robert W Coombs,
Posted 29 Apr 2021
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.04.26.21256118
Posted 29 Apr 2021
With the availability of widespread SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, high-throughput quantitative anti-spike serological testing will likely become increasingly important. Here, we investigated the performance characteristics of the recently FDA authorized semi-quantitative anti-spike AdviseDx SARS-CoV-2 IgG II assay compared to the FDA authorized anti-nucleocapsid Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG, Roche elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2-S, EuroImmun Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA, and GenScript surrogate virus neutralization assays and examined the humoral response associated with vaccination, natural protection, and breakthrough infection. The AdviseDx assay had a clinical sensitivity at 14 days post-symptom onset or 10 days post PCR detection of 95.6% (65/68, 95% CI: 87.8-98.8%) with two discrepant individuals seroconverting shortly thereafter. The AdviseDx assay demonstrated 100% positive percent agreement with the four other assays examined using the same symptom onset or PCR detection cutoffs. Using a recently available WHO International Standard for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody, we provide assay unit conversion factors to international units for each of the assays examined. We performed a longitudinal survey of healthy vaccinated individuals, finding median AdviseDx immunoglobulin levels peaked seven weeks post-first vaccine dose at approximately 4,000 IU/mL. Intriguingly, among the five assays examined, there was no significant difference in antigen binding level or neutralizing activity between two seropositive patients protected against SARS-CoV-2 infection in a previously described fishing vessel outbreak and five healthcare workers who experienced vaccine breakthrough of SARS-CoV-2 infection, all with variants of concern. These findings suggest that protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection cannot currently be predicted exclusively using in vitro antibody assays against wildtype SARS-CoV-2 spike. Further work is required to establish protective correlates of protection for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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