RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate genetic diversity, but the degree to which they do so in individual cell-types in vivo is unknown. We employed NOVA2 cTag-CLIP to generate functional RBP-RNA maps from single neuronal populations in the mouse brain. Combining cell-type specific data from Nova2-cTag and Nova2 conditional knock-out mice revealed differential NOVA2 regulatory actions (e.g. alternative splicing) on the same transcripts in different neurons, including in cerebellar Purkinje cells, where NOVA2 acts as an essential factor for proper motor coordination and synapse formation. This also led to the discovery of a mechanism by which NOVA2 action leads to different outcomes in different cells on the same transcripts: NOVA2 is able to regulate retained introns, which subsequently serve as scaffolds for another trans-acting splicing factor, PTBP2. Our results describe differential roles and mechanisms by which RBPs mediate RNA diversity in different neurons and consequent functional outcomes within the brain.
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