Structural basis for broad sarbecovirus neutralization by a human monoclonal antibody
M. Alejandra Tortorici,
Tyler N Starr,
Alexandra C Walls,
John E Bowen,
Julia Di Iulio,
Anna De Marco,
Michael P. Housley,
Florian A Lempp,
Laura E. Rosen,
Chiara Silacci Fregni,
Caroline Shi-Yan Foo,
Michael A Schmid,
Herbert W Virgin,
Sean P. J. Whelan,
Jesse D Bloom,
Matteo Samuele Pizzuto
Posted 08 Apr 2021
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.04.07.438818
Posted 08 Apr 2021
The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) and the recurrent spillovers of coronaviruses in the human population highlight the need for broadly neutralizing antibodies that are not affected by the ongoing antigenic drift and that can prevent or treat future zoonotic infections. Here, we describe a human monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated S2X259, recognizing a highly conserved cryptic receptor-binding domain (RBD) epitope and cross-reacting with spikes from all sarbecovirus clades. S2X259 broadly neutralizes spike-mediated entry of SARS-CoV-2 including the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1 and B.1.427/B.1.429 VOC, as well as a wide spectrum of human and zoonotic sarbecoviruses through inhibition of ACE2 binding to the RBD. Furthermore, deep-mutational scanning and in vitro escape selection experiments demonstrate that S2X259 possesses a remarkably high barrier to the emergence of resistance mutants. We show that prophylactic administration of S2X259 protects Syrian hamsters against challenges with the prototypic SARS-CoV-2 and the B.1.351 variant, suggesting this mAb is a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of emergent VOC and zoonotic infections. Our data unveil a key antigenic site targeted by broadly-neutralizing antibodies and will guide the design of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.
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