Mendelian randomisation identifies alternative splicing of the FAS death receptor as a mediator of severe COVID-19
Jack S. Gisby,
Marisa D Muckian,
Jing Hua Zhao,
Andrew P Morris,
Åsa K. Hedman,
John R Petrie,
Paul RHJ Timmers,
Daria V. Zhernakova,
J. Gustav Smith,
John N. Danesh,
Nicholas J Wareham,
Rona J Strawbridge,
Themistocles L. Assimes,
J Kenneth Baillie,
Dirk S Paul,
Peter K Joshi,
Adam S. Butterworth,
James F Wilson,
Posted 07 Apr 2021
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.04.01.21254789
Posted 07 Apr 2021
Severe COVID-19 is characterised by immunopathology and epithelial injury. Proteomic studies have identified circulating proteins that are biomarkers of severe COVID-19, but cannot distinguish correlation from causation. To address this, we performed Mendelian randomisation (MR) to identify proteins that mediate severe COVID-19. Using protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) data from the SCALLOP consortium, involving meta-analysis of up to 26,494 individuals, and COVID-19 genome-wide association data from the Host Genetics Initiative, we performed MR for 157 COVID-19 severity protein biomarkers. We identified significant MR results for five proteins: FAS, TNFRSF10A, CCL2, EPHB4 and LGALS9. Further evaluation of these candidates using sensitivity analyses and colocalization testing provided strong evidence to implicate the apoptosis-associated cytokine receptor FAS as a causal mediator of severe COVID-19. This effect was specific to severe disease. Using RNA-seq data from 4,778 individuals, we demonstrate that the pQTL at the FAS locus results from genetically influenced alternate splicing causing skipping of exon 6. We show that the risk allele for very severe COVID-19 increases the proportion of transcripts lacking exon 6, and thereby increases soluble FAS. Soluble FAS acts as a decoy receptor for FAS-ligand, inhibiting apoptosis induced through membrane-bound FAS. In summary, we demonstrate a novel genetic mechanism that contributes to risk of severe of COVID-19, highlighting a pathway that may be a promising therapeutic target.
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