Cross-reactive CD4+ T cells enhance SARS-CoV-2 immune responses upon infection and vaccination
Marcel A Mueller,
Marcus A. Mall,
Victor Max Corman,
Lil Antonia Meyer-Arndt,
Andreas M Thiel,
Posted 05 Apr 2021
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.04.01.21252379
Posted 05 Apr 2021
While evidence for pre-existing SARS-CoV-2-cross-reactive CD4+ T cells in unexposed individuals is increasing, their functional significance remains unclear. Here, we comprehensively determined SARS-CoV-2-cross-reactivity and human coronavirus-reactivity in unexposed individuals. SARS-CoV-2-cross-reactive CD4+ T cells were ubiquitous, but their presence decreased with age. Within the spike glycoprotein fusion domain, we identified a universal immunodominant coronavirus-specific peptide epitope (iCope). Pre-existing spike- and iCope-reactive memory T cells were efficiently recruited into mild SARS-CoV-2 infections and their abundance correlated with higher IgG titers. Importantly, the cells were also reactivated after primary BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in which their kinetics resembled that of secondary immune responses. Our results highlight the functional importance of pre-existing spike-cross-reactive T cells in SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. Abundant spike-specific cross-immunity may be responsible for the unexpectedly high efficacy of current vaccines even with single doses and the high rate of asymptomatic/mild infection courses.
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