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Hemodynamic Differences Between Women and Men with Elevated Blood Pressure in China

By C├ęsar Caraballo, Shiwani Mahajan, Jianlei Gu, Yuan Lu, Erica S Spatz, Rachel P Dreyer, MaoZhen Zhang, NingLing Sun, Yihong Ren, Xin Zheng, Hongyu Zhao, Hui Lu, Zheng J. Ma, Harlan Krumholz

Posted 26 Mar 2021
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.03.22.21253998

Background: Whether there are sex differences in hemodynamic profiles among people with elevated blood pressure is not well understood and could guide personalization of treatment. Methods and results: We described the clinical and hemodynamic characteristics of adults with elevated blood pressure in China using impedance cardiography. We included 45,082 individuals with elevated blood pressure (defined as systolic blood pressure of [&ge;]130 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure of [&ge;]80 mmHg), of which 35.2% were women. Overall, women had a higher mean systolic blood pressure than men (139.0 [{+/-}15.7] mmHg vs 136.8 [{+/-}13.8] mmHg, P<0.001), but a lower mean diastolic blood pressure (82.6 [{+/-}9.0] mmHg vs 85.6 [{+/-}8.9] mmHg, P<0.001). After adjusting for age, region, and body mass index, women <50 years old had lower systemic vascular resistance index (beta-coefficient [{beta}] -31.68; 95% CI: -51.18, -12.19) and higher cardiac index ({beta} 0.07; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.09) than men of their same age group, whereas among those [&ge;]50 years old women had higher systemic vascular resistance index ({beta} 120.43; 95% CI: 102.36, 138.51) but lower cardiac index ({beta} -0.15; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.13). Results were consistent with a propensity score matching sensitivity analysis, although the magnitude of the SVRI difference was lower and non-significant. However, there was substantial overlap between women and men in the distribution plots of these variables, with overlapping areas ranging from 78% to 88%. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that there are sex differences in hypertension phenotype, but that sex alone is insufficient to infer an individual's profile.

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