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SARS-CoV-2 Serology Status Detected by Commercialized Platforms Distinguishes Previous Infection and Vaccination Adaptive Immune Responses

By Raymond T. Suhandynata, Nicholas J Bevins, Jenny T Tran, Deli Huang, Melissa A Hoffman, Kyle Lund, Michael J Kelner, Ronald W McLawhon, Steven L Gonias, David Nemazee, Robert L Fitzgerald

Posted 12 Mar 2021
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.03.10.21253299

Background. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected over 110 million individuals and led to 2.5 million deaths worldwide. As more individuals are vaccinated, the clinical performance and utility of SARS-CoV-2 serology platforms needs to be evaluated. Methods. The ability of four commercial SARS-CoV-2 serology platforms to detect previous infection or vaccination were evaluated using a cohort of 53 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive patients, 89 SARS-CoV-2-vaccinated healthcare workers (Pfizer or Moderna), and 127 SARS-CoV-2 negative patients. Serology results were compared to a cell based SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus (PSV) neutralizing antibodies assay. Results. The Roche S-(spike) antibody and Diazyme neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) assays detected adaptive immune response in 100.0% and 90.1% of vaccinated individuals who received two-doses of vaccine (initial and booster), respectively. The Roche N-(nucleocapsid) antibody assay and Diazyme IgG assay did not detect adaptive immune response in vaccinated individuals. The Diazyme Nabs assay correlated with the PSV SARS-CoV-2 ID50 neutralization titers (R2= 0.70), while correlation of the Roche S-antibody assay was weaker (R2= 0.39). Median PSV SARS-CoV-2 ID50 titers more than doubled in vaccinated individuals who received two-doses of the Moderna vaccine (ID50: 597) compared to individuals that received a single dose (ID50: 284). Conclusions. The Roche S-antibody and Diazyme NAbs assays robustly detected adaptive immune responses in SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated individuals and SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. The Diazyme NAbs assay strongly correlates with the PSV SARS-CoV-2 NAbs in vaccinated individuals. Understanding the reactivity of commercially available serology platforms is important when distinguishing vaccination response versus natural infection.

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