Examining sex differences in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric genetic risk in anxiety and depression
Antonio F. Pardiñas,
Cathryn M Lewis,
Bernhard T Baune,
Dorret I Boomsma,
Steven P Hamilton,
Patrik K Magnusson,
Nicholas G Martin,
Andrew M McIntosh,
Brenda W. J. H. Penninx,
Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium,
Ian R Jones,
James T. R. Walters,
Michael C O'Donovan
Posted 23 Feb 2021
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.02.22.21251925
Posted 23 Feb 2021
Anxiety and depression are common mental health disorders and have a higher prevalence in females. They are modestly heritable, share genetic liability with other psychiatric disorders, and are highly heterogeneous. There is evidence that genetic liability to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with anxiety and depression, particularly in females. We investigated sex differences in family history for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and neurodevelopmental genetic risk burden (indexed by ADHD polygenic risk scores (PRS) and rare copy number variants; CNVs) in individuals with anxiety and depression, also taking into account age at onset. We used two complementary datasets: 1) participants with a self-reported diagnosis of anxiety or depression (N=4,178, 65.5% female; mean age=41.5 years; N=1,315 with genetic data) from the National Centre for Mental Health (NCMH) cohort and 2) a clinical sample of 13,273 (67.6% female; mean age=45.2 years) patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). We tested for sex differences in family history of psychiatric problems and presence of rare CNVs (neurodevelopmental and >500kb loci) in NCMH only and for sex differences in ADHD PRS in both datasets. In the NCMH cohort, females were more likely to report family history of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, but there were no robust sex differences in ADHD PRS or presence of rare CNVs. There was weak evidence of higher ADHD PRS in females compared to males in the PGC MDD sample, particularly in those with an early onset of MDD. These results do not provide strong evidence of sex differences in neurodevelopmental genetic risk burden in adults with anxiety and depression. This indicates that sex may not be a major index of neurodevelopmental genetic heterogeneity, that is captured by ADHD PRS and rare CNV burden, in adults with anxiety and depression.
- Downloaded 175 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 125,114
- In psychiatry and clinical psychology: 588
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 31,378
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 73,019
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!