A triple threat: the Parastagonospora nodorum SnTox267 effector exploits three distinct host genetic factors to cause disease in wheat
Gayan K. Kariyawasam,
Nathan A. Wyatt,
Steven S. Xu,
Justin D. Faris,
Posted 26 Feb 2021
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.02.25.432871 (published DOI: 10.1111/nph.17601)
Posted 26 Feb 2021
Parastagonospora nodorum is a fungal pathogen of wheat. As a necrotrophic specialist, it deploys a suite of effector proteins that target dominant host susceptibility genes to elicit programmed cell death (PCD). Nine effector - host susceptibility gene interactions have been reported in this pathosystem, presumed to be governed by unique pathogen effectors. This study presents the characterization of the SnTox267 necrotrophic effector that hijacks two separate host pathways to cause necrosis. An association mapping approach identified SnTox267 and the generation of gene-disrupted mutants and gain-of-function transformants confirmed its role in Snn2-, Snn6-, and Snn7-mediated necrosis. The Snn2 and Snn6 host susceptibility genes were complementary, and together they functioned cooperatively to elicit SnTox267-induced necrosis in the same light-dependent PCD pathway. Additionally, we showed that SnTox267 targeted Snn7, resulting in light-independent necrosis. Therefore, SnTox267 co-opts two distinct host pathways to elicit PCD. SnTox267 sequence comparison among a natural population of 197 North American P. nodorum isolates revealed 20 protein isoforms conferring variable levels of virulence, indicating continuing selection pressure on this gene. Protein isoform prevalence among discrete populations indicated that SnTox267 has likely evolved in response to local selection pressures and has diversified more rapidly in the Upper Midwest. Deletion of SnTox267 resulted in the upregulation of the unrelated effector genes SnToxA, SnTox1, and SnTox3, providing evidence for a complex genetic compensation mechanism. These results illustrate a novel evolutionary path by which a necrotrophic fungal pathogen uses a single proteinaceous effector to hijack two host pathways to induce cell death.
- Downloaded 218 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 117,862
- In pathology: 667
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 27,543
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 61,238
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!